In partnership with the blog ScreenCraft, we’re publishing “First Draft,” a fortnightly series on everything to do with screenwriting. New articles, written by the team at ScreenCraft, will be posted every other Monday.

Action sequences can be a screenwriter’s best friend or worst enemy. If you can write them well, you’ll be more of a coveted commodity in the eyes of the powers that be. Such a gift will make your spec scripts shine brighter than the rest, being entertaining and engaging reads, and will increase your chances of being considered for key writing assignments.

If you can’t, well, it’s time to start honing that skill set.

“But what about character and story? Isn’t that the most important skill set to have?”

1. Action is Augmented Storytelling and Characterization

It’s a device in screenplays in multiple genres that allows for kinetic, thrilling and entertaining ways to move the story forward and reveal character depth. At least when written well. We certainly can’t say that the action in a movie like Commando is a tool to develop the story and character depth.

That type of action has its entertainment value, but it’s not as engaging as the action found in films like Die Hard which showcase a life-threatening element of danger, where the lead character gets hurt and shows pain and emotion.

We learn more about characters through their overall actions and reactions. Thus, action sequences are central to taking a character forward. In conjunction with that, the whole reason an action sequence should exist in a film is to be a bridge to move the story forward to the next point.

So action sequences are augmented ways to tell a story and to add to a character’s depth.

The torture sequence in the original Lethal Weapon is a brilliant example of action that moves the story forward and reveals character as well.

The sequence showcases what Riggs is capable of. It showcases Murtaugh’s love for his daughter and the horror he feels as these villains torment her. And it takes the story forward as well.

2. Action Is About Objectives, Obstacles and Conflicts

Some iconic action sequences replace character depth with creative, engaging and suspenseful obstacles for the hero to overcome. The Mission Impossible and Indiana Jones franchises shine in that respect.

Rather than just put dozens of bad guys on the screen to be endless bullet catchers, as evident in the Commando clip (we do love you, Arnold), those franchises create a roller coaster ride of obstacles, objectives and conflicts. Perhaps the best example is the iconic chase sequence in Raiders of the Lost Ark.

The objective is getting the Ark. The obstacles are getting onto the truck and then into the truck. The conflict is the Nazi soldier army standing in Indy’s way of overcoming those obstacles. If you take the Nazi soldiers away and just have a driver that Indy must defeat, how engaging is that? If you take away the other Nazi vehicles that Indy has to maneuver past, how engaging is that?

The best action sequences are those that throw as many obstacles and conflicts in between the hero and his or her objective as possible.

3. Action is About the Broad Strokes

Anyone can write a blow-by-blow, gunshot-by-gunshot or explosion-by-explosion breakdown. It gets boring. You’ll lose a reader quickly with a detailed list of those elements. Action writing is about displaying the broad strokes for the reader: the important elements that shift the fight or chase sequences into the next gear.

Forget about the little exchanges of fists, feet or bullets. It’s the major punch, kick or gunshot that moves the sequence forward.

If you watch a fight sequence like the iconic Bruce Lee vs. Chuck Norris battle in Way of the Dragon, you’ll notice the major shifts in the fight.

Within the script, those opening blows wouldn’t be listed one-by-one. The script would simply read:

Violent and skilled kicks are exchanged until COLT (CHUCK NORRIS) CONNECTS HARD WITH A KICK TO TANG LUNG’S FACE, sending him flying to the ground.

That’s the first key moment to the fight. The hero is taken down, surprised. This is a major shift in the fight, thus it is the broad stroke that needs to be featured. Then he takes more of a beating and goes down. Colt shakes his finger, which is another key moment that shifts the fight sequence because Tang Lung now changes his style.

So the important thing to remember when writing any action sequences is to focus on those big moments that shift the momentum. Test yourself by finding those elements and writing them down while watching action sequences like this epic The Matrix sequence.

Possible answers: The metal detector moment, the security guard calling for backup, the arrival of Trinity, the arrival of the S.W.A.T. team, Trinity running on the wall, Neo making his move, Trinity covering him by taking out the shotgun, Neo cartwheeling for the machine gun and then cartwheeling while firing, and finally ending with Neo’s flying double kick.

Every gun shot in between is an element that you can generalize or imply briefly within the scene description. This exercise will help you determine those broad strokes to focus on in your own writing.

4. Action is Not About Technical Terms

Many screenwriters try to elevate their action writing by using technical terms for hits and weapons. We don’t need to know the technical name for every kick. Most people don’t always know what the difference is between an axe kick and an outward downward kick anyway (to wit, they are the same). They don’t need to know a jab from a ridge hand. Those elements will be determined by the fight coordinator.

Nor do they need to know the names of the various submachine guns, like the Agram 2000, Benelly CB-M2, HK-MP5, etc. Who cares? In the end, it’s not even up to the screenwriter to determine what weapon will be used in the production. Those elements will be determined by the prop master and technical advisers. If anything, you’ve simply slammed the breaks on the read because the reader has no clue what those models look like when you could have simply said machine gun, assault rifle, shotgun, revolver, etc.

5. Action Is About the Hero Failing, Prevailing, Failing, Prevailing…

An action sequence with the hero simply dominating from beginning to end isn’t as engaging as one where the momentum constantly shifts in favor of and against them. That’s what keeps an audience (and a reader) on the edge of their seats.

The opening sequence in Raiders of the Lost Ark is a perfect example (and also works in the context of Objectives, Obstacles and Conflicts as well).

We watch as Indy figures out the various booby traps and circumvents them to get the prized idol. But just when we think he’s prevailed, we see that he has failed. The momentum has drastically changed. Now he must fail every booby trap he previously prevailed over. He makes the leap over the seemingly bottomless pit, but then slides to the edge. He grabs the vine and smiles, thinking he’s survived, but then the vine slips. He pulls himself up and is headed out, only to suddenly find himself running from a giant boulder.

Action sequences aren’t about heroes dominating and showing their skill. The best ones show them failing, prevailing, failing and prevailing. That’s entertainment.

It’s a common misconception that the action genre is void of story and character. As you can see, nothing could be further from the truth.

Action sequences are an important element to the cinematic experience. Without story and character, they are often meaningless and forgetful, nothing more than mayhem for sake of mayhem. But when you inject those story and character elements into action sequences, you create memorable moments in your scripts and eventual movies.

They are meaningful. They have a beginning, middle and end, no different than any story or character arc found within a movie. They have dramatic stakes and can be found and utilized in any genre.

And finally, they aren’t just about punches, kicks, bullets and explosions.

Master the art of action writing and you’ll find that your scripts and career will benefit greatly. MM

This post originally appeared on the blog ScreenCraft. ScreenCraft is dedicated to helping screenwriters and filmmakers succeed through educational events, screenwriting competitions and the annual ScreenCraft Screenwriting Fellowship program, connecting screenwriters with agents, managers and Hollywood producers. Follow ScreenCraft on TwitterFacebook, and YouTube.

Featured image courtesy of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc., Danjaq, LLC and Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc.

Mentioned This Article: